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Bader, J.M., Geyer, P.E., Müller, J.B., Strauss, M.T., Koch, M., Leypoldt, F., Koertvelyessy, P., Bittner, D., Schipke, C.G., Incesoy, E.I., Peters, O., Deigendesch, N., Simons, M., Jensen, M.K., Zetterberg, H., and Mann, M.
(IMPRS-LS students and -alumni are in bold)
Mol Syst Biol, 2020, 16, e9356.
doi: 10.15252/msb.20199356

Proteome profiling in cerebrospinal fluid reveals novel biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease

Neurodegenerative diseases are a growing burden, and there is an urgent need for better biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy. Structural and functional brain alterations are reflected in the protein composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have higher CSF levels of tau, but we lack knowledge of systems-wide changes of CSF protein levels that accompany AD. Here, we present a highly reproducible mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics workflow for the in-depth analysis of CSF from minimal sample amounts. From three independent studies (197 individuals), we characterize differences in proteins by AD status (> 1,000 proteins, CV < 20%). Proteins with previous links to neurodegeneration such as tau, SOD1, and PARK7 differed most strongly by AD status, providing strong positive controls for our approach. CSF proteome changes in Alzheimer's disease prove to be widespread and often correlated with tau concentrations. Our unbiased screen also reveals a consistent glycolytic signature across our cohorts and a recent study. Machine learning suggests clinical utility of this proteomic signature.

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Scacchetti, A., Schauer, T., Reim, A., Apostolou, Z., Campos Sparr, A., Krause, S., Heun, P., Wierer, M., and Becker, P.B.
(IMPRS-LS students are in bold)
Elife, 2020, 9.
doi: 10.7554/eLife.56325

Drosophila SWR1 and NuA4 complexes are defined by DOMINO isoforms

Histone acetylation and deposition of H2A.Z variant are integral aspects of active transcription. In Drosophila, the single DOMINO chromatin regulator complex is thought to combine both activities via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that alternative isoforms of the DOMINO nucleosome remodeling ATPase, DOM-A and DOM-B, directly specify two distinct multi-subunit complexes. Both complexes are necessary for transcriptional regulation but through different mechanisms. The DOM-B complex incorporates H2A.V (the fly ortholog of H2A.Z) genome-wide in an ATP-dependent manner, like the yeast SWR1 complex. The DOM-A complex, instead, functions as an ATP-independent histone acetyltransferase complex similar to the yeast NuA4, targeting lysine 12 of histone H4. Our work provides an instructive example of how different evolutionary strategies lead to similar functional separation. In yeast and humans, nucleosome remodeling and histone acetyltransferase complexes originate from gene duplication and paralog specification. Drosophila generates the same diversity by alternative splicing of a single gene.

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Soni, K., Martínez-Lumbreras, S., and Sattler, M.
J Mol Biol, 2020, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2020.05.012

Conformational dynamics from ambiguous zinc coordination in the RanBP2-type zinc finger of RBM5

The multi-domain RNA binding protein RBM5 is a molecular signature of metastasis. RBM5 regulates alternative splicing of apoptotic genes including the cell death receptor Fas and the initiator Caspase-2. The RBM5 RanBP2-type zinc finger (Zf1) is known to specifically recognize single stranded RNAs with high affinity. Here, we study the structure and conformational dynamics of the Zf1 zinc finger of human RBM5 using NMR. We show that the presence of a non-canonical cysteine in Zf1 kinetically destabilizes the protein. Metal exchange kinetics show that mutation of the cysteine establishes high affinity coordination of the zinc. Our data indicate that selection of such a structurally destabilizing mutation during the course of evolution could present an opportunity for functional adaptation of the protein.

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Schmacke, N.A., and Hornung, V.
Nature, 2020, 581, 266-267.
doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-0133

Fourth defence molecule completes antiviral line-up

Toll-like receptors can initiate an immune response when they detect signs of a viral or microbial threat. New insight into how such receptor activation drives defence programs should aid our efforts to understand autoimmune diseases.

graduationCongratulations on your PhD!

Sophia Hergenhan
Circadian Control of Leukocyte Numbers in the Circulation
RG: Christoph Scheiermann

Tugce Öz Yoldas
What prevents DNA replication between meiosis I and -II in yeast?
RG: Wolfgang Zachariae



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Yildizoglu, T., Riegler, C., Fitzgerald, J.E., and Portugues, R.
Curr Biol, 2020, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.043

A Neural Representation of Naturalistic Motion-Guided Behavior in the Zebrafish Brain

All animals must transform ambiguous sensory data into successful behavior. This requires sensory representations that accurately reflect the statistics of natural stimuli and behavior. Multiple studies show that visual motion processing is tuned for accuracy under naturalistic conditions, but the sensorimotor circuits extracting these cues and implementing motion-guided behavior remain unclear. Here we show that the larval zebrafish retina extracts a diversity of naturalistic motion cues, and the retinorecipient pretectum organizes these cues around the elements of behavior. We find that higher-order motion stimuli, gliders, induce optomotor behavior matching expectations from natural scene analyses. We then image activity of retinal ganglion cell terminals and pretectal neurons. The retina exhibits direction-selective responses across glider stimuli, and anatomically clustered pretectal neurons respond with magnitudes matching behavior. Peripheral computations thus reflect natural input statistics, whereas central brain activity precisely codes information needed for behavior. This general principle could organize sensorimotor transformations across animal species.

Tobias Bonhoeffer appointed advisor of Chan Zuckerberg Science

Researchers for protein folding helpers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry have now deciphered the molecular structure of the EL phage chaperonin and discovered special features.

In general, viruses carry only a minimal amount of genetic information. They infect a host cell and use its metabolism and protein production machinery to reproduce. The bacteriophage EL also carries the genetic information of a protein folding helper, a so-called chaperonin. The Bacteriophage EL is a virus that can infect one of the most well-known hospital germs - the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Researchers in the team of Manajit Hayer-Hartl and experts for protein folding helpers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry have now deciphered the molecular structure of the EL phage chaperonin and discovered special features. The results of the crystal and cryo-electron microscopy structures show complexes with 7 or 14 subunits that form single and double rings. "In contrast to the known chaperonins, all the structures found were open, which means that they do not form a folding cage as in GroEL/GroES," says Andreas Bracher, first author of the study. "It is possible that this phage chaperonin represents a primitive, evolutionary precursor of today's cellular chaperonins, which works without encapsulation of the substrate proteins". The study was published in the science journal PLOS ONE.

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Bittmann, J., Grigaitis, R., Galanti, L., Amarell, S., Wilfling, F., Matos, J., and Pfander, B.
(IMPRS-LS students are in bold)
Elife, 2020, 9.
doi: 10.7554/eLife.52459

An advanced cell cycle tag toolbox reveals principles underlying temporal control of structure-selective nucleases

Cell cycle tags allow to restrict target protein expression to specific cell cycle phases. Here, we present an advanced toolbox of cell cycle tag constructs in budding yeast with defined and compatible peak expression that allow comparison of protein functionality at different cell cycle phases. We apply this technology to the question of how and when Mus81-Mms4 and Yen1 nucleases act on DNA replication or recombination structures. Restriction of Mus81-Mms4 to M phase but not S phase allows a wildtype response to various forms of replication perturbation and DNA damage in S phase, suggesting it acts as a post-replicative resolvase. Moreover, we use cell cycle tags to reinstall cell cycle control to a deregulated version of Yen1, showing that its premature activation interferes with the response to perturbed replication. Curbing resolvase activity and establishing a hierarchy of resolution mechanisms are therefore the principal reasons underlying resolvase cell cycle regulation.

Max Planck researchers have for the first time developed a genome the size of a minimal cell that can copy itself.

The field of synthetic biology does not only observe and describe processes of life but also mimics them. A key characteristic of life is the ability to ability for replication, which means the maintenance of a chemical system. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried generated a system, which is able to regenerate parts of its own DNA and protein building blocks. The results have now been published in Nature Communications.

In the field of synthetic biology, researchers investigate so-called “bottom-up” processes, which means the generation of life mimicking systems from inanimate building blocks. One of the most fundamental characteristics of all living organism is the ability to conserve and reproduce itself as distinct entities. However, the artificial “bottom-up” approach to create a system, which is able to replicate itself, is a great experimental challenge. For the first time, scientists have succeeded in overcoming this hurdle and synthesizing such a system.

A biological machine produces its own building blocks

Hannes Mutschler, head of the research group "Biomimetic Systems" at the MPI for Biochemistry, and his team are dedicated to imitate the replication of genomes and protein synthesis with a “bottom-up” approach. Both processes are fundamental for the self-preservation and reproduction of biological systems. The researchers now succeeded in producing an in vitro system, in which both processes could take place simultaneously. "Our system is able to regenerate a significant proportion of its molecular components itself," explains Mutschler. In order to start this process, the researchers needed a construction manual as well as various molecular "machines" and nutrients. Translated into biological terms, this means the construction manual is DNA, which contains the information to produce proteins. Proteins are often referred to as "molecular machines" because they often act as catalysts, which accelerate biochemical reactions in organisms.  

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Blessing, C., and Ladurner, A.G.
Nat Struct Mol Biol, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1038/s41594-020-0412-x

Tickling PARPs into serine action

Poly-(ADP-ribosylation) is a post-translational modification with broad roles in cell signaling. A recently reported crystal structure reveals how the accessory factor HPF1 extends the catalytic active site of PARP1 and PARP2 to promote the specific ADP-ribosylation of serine residues, a prerequisite for dynamic chromatin changes induced by DNA damage.