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Rosam, M., Krader, D., Nickels, C., Hochmair, J., Back, K.C., Agam, G., Barth, A., Zeymer, C., Hendrix, J., Schneider, M., Antes, I., Reinstein, J., Lamb, D.C., and Buchner, J.
Nat Struct Mol Biol 2018, 25, 90-100.
doi: 10.1038/s41594-017-0012-6

Bap (Sil1) regulates the molecular chaperone BiP by coupling release of nucleotide and substrate

BiP is the endoplasmic member of the Hsp70 family. BiP is regulated by several co-chaperones including the nucleotide-exchange factor (NEF) Bap (Sil1 in yeast). Bap is a two-domain protein. The interaction of the Bap C-terminal domain with the BiP ATPase domain is sufficient for its weak NEF activity. However, stimulation of the BiP ATPase activity requires full-length Bap, suggesting a complex interplay of these two factors. Here, single-molecule FRET experiments with mammalian proteins reveal that Bap affects the conformation of both BiP domains, including the lid subdomain, which is important for substrate binding. The largely unstructured Bap N-terminal domain promotes the substrate release from BiP. Thus, Bap is a conformational regulator affecting both nucleotide and substrate interactions. The preferential interaction with BiP in its ADP state places Bap at a late stage of the chaperone cycle, in which it coordinates release of substrate and ADP, thereby resetting BiP for ATP and substrate binding.


 

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Park, D.I., Stambuk, J., Razdorov, G., Pucic-Bakovic, M., Martins-de-Souza, D., Lauc, G., and Turck, C.W.
Sci Rep 2018, 8, 179.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17500-0

Blood plasma/IgG N-glycome biosignatures associated with major depressive disorder symptom severity and the antidepressant response

While N-linked glycosylation has been extensively studied in the context of inflammatory and metabolic disorders, its relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD) and antidepressant treatment response has not been investigated. In our exploratory study, we analysed N-glycan profiles in blood plasma samples collected from MDD patients (n = 18) and found gender-dependent correlations with severity of depressive symptoms prior to initiating antidepressant treatment. In addition, several N-glycosylation traits showed gender-dependent associations with clinical antidepressant response. Follow up proteomics analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from MDD patients (n = 20) identified baseline and post-antidepressant treatment pathway differences between responder and non-responder patients. Reactome data analysis further delineated potential biological reaction differences between responder and non-responder patients. Our preliminary results suggest that specific glycosylation traits are associated with depressive symptom severity and antidepressant response and may be of use as biomarkers.


 

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Mangal, S., Sacher, J., Kim, T., Osorio, D.S., Motegi, F., Carvalho, A.X., Oegema, K., and Zanin, E.
J Cell Biol, 2018, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1083/jcb.201706021

TPXL-1 activates Aurora A to clear contractile ring components from the polar cortex during cytokinesis

During cytokinesis, a signal from the central spindle that forms between the separating anaphase chromosomes promotes the accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell equator, while a signal from the centrosomal microtubule asters inhibits accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell poles. However, the molecular identity of the inhibitory signal has remained unknown. To identify molecular components of the aster-based inhibitory signal, we developed a means to monitor the removal of contractile ring proteins from the polar cortex after anaphase onset. Using this assay, we show that polar clearing is an active process that requires activation of Aurora A kinase by TPXL-1. TPXL-1 concentrates on astral microtubules coincident with polar clearing in anaphase, and its ability to recruit Aurora A and activate its kinase activity are essential for clearing. In summary, our data identify Aurora A kinase as an aster-based inhibitory signal that restricts contractile ring components to the cell equator during cytokinesis.


 

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Scherr, M.J., Safaric, B., and Duderstadt, K.E.
Bioessays, 2017, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1002/bies.201700159

Noise in the Machine: Alternative Pathway Sampling is the Rule During DNA Replication

The astonishing efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication has long suggested that refined rules enforce a single highly reproducible sequence of molecular events during the process. This view was solidified by early demonstrations that DNA unwinding and synthesis are coupled within a stable molecular factory, known as the replisome, which consists of conserved components that each play unique and complementary roles. However, recent single-molecule observations of replisome dynamics have begun to challenge this view, revealing that replication may not be defined by a uniform sequence of events. Instead, multiple exchange pathways, pauses, and DNA loop types appear to dominate replisome function. These observations suggest we must rethink our fundamental assumptions and acknowledge that each replication cycle may involve sampling of alternative, sometimes parallel, pathways. Here, we review our current mechanistic understanding of DNA replication while highlighting findings that exemplify multi-pathway aspects of replisome function and considering the broader implications.


 

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Glock P., Broichhagen J., Kretschmer S., Blumhardt P., Mücksch J., Trauner D., Schwille P.
(IMPRS-LS students are in bold)
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2017, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1002/anie.201712002

Optical control of protein pattern formation

Patterns formed by protein reactions and diffusion are the foundation for many phenomena in biology. Yet, the experimental study of reaction-diffusion (R-D) systems has so far been dominated by chemical oscillators, for which many manipulation tools are available. Here, we developed a photoswitch for the Min system of Escherichia coli, a versatile biological in vitro R-D system consisting of the antagonistic proteins MinD and MinE. A MinE-derived peptide of 19 amino acids is covalently modified with a photoisomerizable crosslinker based on azobenzene to externally control peptide-mediated depletion of MinD from the membrane. In addition to providing an on-off switch for pattern formation, we achieve frequency-locked entrainment with a precise 2D spatial memory, allowing new insights into Min protein action on the membrane. Taken together, we provide a tool to externally control protein patterns formed by self-organization.


 

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Vincenz-Donnelly, L., Holthusen, H., Korner, R., Hansen, E.C., Presto, J., Johansson, J., Sawarkar, R., Hartl, F.U., and Hipp, M.S.
EMBO J, 2017, [Epub ahead of print].
doi 10.15252/embj.201695841

High capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum to prevent secretion and aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins

Protein aggregation is associated with neurodegeneration and various other pathologies. How specific cellular environments modulate the aggregation of disease proteins is not well understood. Here, we investigated how the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system handles β-sheet proteins that were designed de novo to form amyloid-like fibrils. While these proteins undergo toxic aggregation in the cytosol, we find that targeting them to the ER (ER-β) strongly reduces their toxicity. ER-β is retained within the ER in a soluble, polymeric state, despite reaching very high concentrations exceeding those of ER-resident molecular chaperones. ER-β is not removed by ER-associated degradation (ERAD) but interferes with ERAD of other proteins. These findings demonstrate a remarkable capacity of the ER to prevent the formation of insoluble β-aggregates and the secretion of potentially toxic protein species. Our results also suggest a generic mechanism by which proteins with exposed β-sheet structure in the ER interfere with proteostasis.


 

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Albert, S., Schaffer, M., Beck, F., Mosalaganti, S., Asano, S., Thomas, H.F., Plitzko, J.M., Beck, M., Baumeister, W., and Engel, B.D.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2017, [Epub ahead of print].
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1716305114

Proteasomes tether to two distinct sites at the nuclear pore complex.

The partitioning of cellular components between the nucleus and cytoplasm is the defining feature of eukaryotic life. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) selectively gates the transport of macromolecules between these compartments, but it is unknown whether surveillance mechanisms exist to reinforce this function. By leveraging in situ cryo-electron tomography to image the native cellular environment of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we observed that nuclear 26S proteasomes crowd around NPCs. Through a combination of subtomogram averaging and nanometer-precision localization, we identified two classes of proteasomes tethered via their Rpn9 subunits to two specific NPC locations: binding sites on the NPC basket that reflect its eightfold symmetry and more abundant binding sites at the inner nuclear membrane that encircle the NPC. These basket-tethered and membrane-tethered proteasomes, which have similar substrate-processing state frequencies as proteasomes elsewhere in the cell, are ideally positioned to regulate transcription and perform quality control of both soluble and membrane proteins transiting the NPC.


 

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Jaepel, J., Hubener, M., Bonhoeffer, T., and Rose, T.
Nat Neurosci, 2017, 20, 1708-1714.
doi: 10.1038/s41593-017-0021-0

Lateral geniculate neurons projecting to primary visual cortex show ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice.

Experience-dependent plasticity in the mature visual system is widely considered to be cortical. Using chronic two-photon Ca2+ imaging of thalamic afferents in layer 1 of binocular visual cortex, we provide evidence against this tenet: the respective dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) cells showed pronounced ocular dominance (OD) shifts after monocular deprivation in adult mice. Most (86%), but not all, of dLGN cell boutons were monocular during normal visual experience. Following deprivation, initially deprived-eye-dominated boutons reduced or lost their visual responsiveness to that eye and frequently became responsive to the non-deprived eye. This cannot be explained by eye-specific cortical changes propagating to dLGN via cortico-thalamic feedback because the shift in dLGN responses was largely resistant to cortical inactivation using the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Our data suggest that OD shifts observed in the binocular visual cortex of adult mice may at least partially reflect plasticity of eye-specific inputs onto dLGN neurons.


 

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Frauenstein, A., and Meissner, F.
Methods Mol Biol, 2018, 1714, 215-227.
doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7519-8_14

Quantitative Proteomics of Secreted Proteins.

Secreted proteins such as cytokines, interleukins, growth factors, and hormones have pleiotropic functions and facilitate intercellular communication in organisms. Quantification of these proteins conventionally relies on antibody-based methods, i.e., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), whose large-scale use is limited by availability, specificity, and affordability.Here, we describe an experimental and bioinformatics workflow to comprehensively quantify cellular protein secretion by mass spectrometry. Secreted proteins are collected in vitro or ex vivo, digested with proteases and the resulting peptide mixtures are analyzed in single liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) runs. Label-free quantification and bioinformatics analysis is conducted in the MaxQuant and Perseus computational environment. Our workflow allows the quantification of thousands of secreted proteins spanning a concentration range of four orders of magnitude and permits the systems-level characterization of secretory programs as well as the discovery of proteins with unexpected extracellular functions.


 

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Hosp, F.*, Gutierrez-Angel, S.*, Schaefer, M.H., Cox, J., Meissner, F., Hipp, M.S., Hartl, F.U., Klein, R., Dudanova, I., and Mann, M.
Cell Rep, 2017, 21, 2291-2303.
* equal contribution

Spatiotemporal Proteomic Profiling of Huntington's Disease Inclusions Reveals Widespread Loss of Protein Function.

Aggregation of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin exon 1 (HttEx1) in Huntington's disease (HD) proceeds from soluble oligomers to late-stage inclusions. The nature of the aggregates and how they lead to neuronal dysfunction is not well understood. We employed mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics to dissect spatiotemporal mechanisms of neurodegeneration using the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Extensive remodeling of the soluble brain proteome correlated with insoluble aggregate formation during disease progression. In-depth and quantitative characterization of the aggregates uncovered an unprecedented complexity of several hundred proteins. Sequestration to aggregates depended on protein expression levels and sequence features such as low-complexity regions or coiled-coil domains. In a cell-based HD model, overexpression of a subset of the sequestered proteins in most cases rescued viability and reduced aggregate size. Our spatiotemporally resolved proteome resource of HD progression indicates that widespread loss of cellular protein function contributes to aggregate-mediated toxicity.